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【文選】The Roman Way 條條大路通羅馬

Once a city-state, Rome grew to become the political and cultural center of the Mediterranean. The empire stretched as far as Britain to the West and Mesopotamia to the East. Romans considered themselves to be the direct descendants of the mythical people of Troy, believing they had inherited the favor of the gods. Through its many glorious military conquests and achievements, the Roman world has left a rich legacy for modern scholars. What has been learned has given us a glimpse into a time in which man reached a height of civilization that had never been seen before.   During the early years of Roman history, 750-510 B.C., Rome was ruled by successive kings. Rome evolved quickly, and by the end of the fifth century B.C., the last king was expelled and a republican government was established. During this era, Rome succeeded in conquering all of Italy and by the first century B.C., was the lasting power in the Mediterranean.   At this time, rival military forces began to compete for power. Two men, Pompey and Julius Caesar, emerged as bitter rivals with opposing armies. In 49 B.C., civil war broke out, with Julius Caesar eventually defeating Pompey. Voted dictator for life by the senate, Caesar met with an untimely death on the 15th of March in 44 B.C. The date will forever be known as "The Ides of March." 羅馬原本只是一個城邦,後來逐漸發展成地中海政治和文化的中心。羅馬帝國西達大不列顛,東至美索不達米亞平原。羅馬人認為他們是傳說中特洛伊人的嫡系子孫,他們相信自己繼承了諸神的恩寵。羅馬多次輝煌的軍事勝利和其非凡的成就留給現代學者豐富的遺產。我們對於羅馬的認識使我們能一窺這個創下文明顛峰的時代。   在羅馬的早期歷史中(西元前七五○~五一○年),羅馬由繼任的國王來統治。羅馬發展得很快,到了西元前五世紀,最後一任國王遭驅逐,並建立起共和政府。在共和政府時代,羅馬成功地征服了整個義大利,並自西元前一世紀就長期稱霸地中海地區。   此時各派軍事勢力開始奪權。龐培和凱撒這兩個人崛起,各擁大軍,互為勁敵。西元前四九年,內戰爆發,凱撒最後打敗龐培。然而正當元老院選任凱撒為永久的統治者時,他卻於西元前四四年三月的第十五日猝逝。三月十五日這天也就永遠刻劃在世人心中。 city-state 城邦 Mediterranean 地中海 stretched 伸直、延伸 Mesopotamia 美索不達米亞 descendant 後裔、子孫 mythical 傳說、神話 Troy 特洛伊 inherited 繼承 glorious 榮耀、榮譽 military 軍事的 conquest 領地、征服 achievement 成就、達成 legacy 遺產、遺址 scholar 學者、人文學者 glimpse 一瞥、瞥見 civilization 文化、文明 ◎evolved 發展 successive 連續的、繼任的 expelled 驅逐 era 時代、紀元 ◎conquering 攻克、戰勝、克服 rival 競爭者、對手 forces 力量、力 emerged 出現、浮現 bitter 苦的 opposing 相對、相反、[敵對的] defeating 戰勝、打敗 vote 選舉 dictator 裁判者 senate 元老院(古羅馬)、參議院(美國) civil 公民的、國內的 Ides (作單數用)(古羅馬)(三月,五月,七月,十月的)15日,其他月份的13日 1. as far as...   達……之遠, 遠至…… 2. give sb a glimpse into...   使某人一窺…… 3.succeed in...   在……成功, 成功做到…… 4. compete for...   競爭…… 5. break out    (戰爭、疫情等) 爆發 6. for life  終生 7. meet with...  遭逢…… source of 常春藤解析英語 2005-03-31 ===================================================== 看   不   到   的   分   隔   線 ===================================================== 其他補充相關文章 1 ===================================================== Beware the Ides of March! From Apply Now, Your Guide to Astrology. The ominous warning, "Beware the Ides of March," originated with the Roman ruler, Julius Caesar, who was assassinated on the Ides of March - March 15, 44 B.C.E. If you've heard the ominous warning, then it's most likely due to William Shakespeare and his play, Julius Caesar. The warning itself was made famous in Shakespeare's play on Julius Caesar, when an unidentified soothsayer tells Caesar, who is on his way to the Senate (and his death), "Beware the ides of March." Caesar replies, "He is a dreamer; let us leave him. Pass." 【The Astrologer Spurinna】 According to historical writer C.J.S. Thompson, Ph.D. in The Mystery and Romance of Astrology, 1929, the unidentified soothsayer from Shakespeare's play was a Roman astrologer by the name of Spurinna. According to Thompson - and confirmed in Plutarch's account of the story written in 75 A.D. and Suetonius in 110 A.D. - it was sometime prior to the fateful day of March 15 that Spurinna had first given Caesar the famous warning to "beware of the Ides of March." The astrologer, Spurinna, had previously warned Caesar that on "the Ides of March," he would be in great danger. If, however, Julius Caesar took care on that one day - then all would be well. According to Plutarch's account, Caesar had previously made the wise decision to stay within the safety of his bedroom chambers on the 15th of March. However, Caesar's "friend" Decimus (Albinus) Brutus (not Marcus Brutus) managed to convince him that the astrologer's warnings were nothing more than superstitious foolishness. So Julius Caesar decided to attend the Senate on the 15th of March. On his way to the Senate, Caesar "accidentally" met up with the astrologer. Upon seeing Spurinna, Caesar confidently informed the astrologer: "The Ides of March are come." Spurinna replied, "Yes, they are come, but they are not past." Later that day - on March 15, 44 B.C.E - Caesar's enemies assassinated him in the Pompey theater, at the foot of Pompey's statue, where the Roman Senate was meeting that day in the temple of Venus. 【What Are the Ides?】 In the ancient Roman calendar, each of the 12 months of the year had an "ides." In March, May, July and October, the "ides" fell on the 15th day. In every other month, the "ides" fell on the 13th. The word "ides" was derived from the Latin "to divide." The "ides" were originally meant to mark the full moon - but since the solar calendar months and lunar months were of different lengths, the "ides" quickly lost their original intent and purpose. So an alternative (albeit somewhat dubious) theory, as to why Caesar might have "seemingly" ignored the ominous warning of Spurinna, is that perhaps Julius Caesar got the dates of the warning mixed up. He may have been thinking that the Ides of March fell on the 13th. Using this theory, forgetful Caesar would have been very careful and stayed home on the 13th of March, but on the 15th of March his guard was down. Source of:http://astrology.about.com/od/oddstrange/a/idesmarch.htm 其他補充相關文章 2 ===================================================== The Ides of March Just one of a dozen Ides that occur every month of the year The soothsayer's warning to Julius Caesar, "Beware the Ides of March," has forever imbued that date with a sense of foreboding. But in Roman times the expression "Ides of March" did not necessarily evoke a dark mood—it was simply the standard way of saying "March 15." Surely such a fanciful expression must signify something more than merely another day of the year? Not so. Even in Shakespeare's time, sixteen centuries later, audiences attending his play Julius Caesar wouldn't have blinked twice upon hearing the date called the Ides. The term Ides comes from the earliest Roman calendar, which is said to have been devised by Romulus, the mythical founder of Rome. Whether it was Romulus or not, the inventor of this calendar had a penchant for complexity. The Roman calendar organized its months around three days, each of which served as a reference point for counting the other days: Kalends (1st day of the month) Nones (the 7th day in March, May, July, and October; the 5th in the other months) Ides (the 15th day in March, May, July, and October; the 13th in the other months) The remaining, unnamed days of the month were identified by counting backwards from the Kalends, Nones, or the Ides. For example, March 3 would be V Nones—5 days before the Nones (the Roman method of counting days was inclusive; in other words, the Nones would be counted as one of the 5 days). 【Days in March】 March 1: Kalends; March 2: VI Nones; March 3: V Nones; March 4: IV Nones; March 5: III Nones; March 6: Pridie Nones (Latin for "on the day before"); March 7: Nones; March 15: Ides Used in the first Roman calendar as well as in the Julian calendar (established by Julius Caesar in 45 B.C.E.) the confusing system of Kalends, Nones, and Ides continued to be used to varying degrees throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance. So, the Ides of March is just one of a dozen Ides that occur every month of the year. Kalends, the word from which calendar is derived, is another exotic-sounding term with a mundane meaning. Kalendrium means account book in Latin: Kalend, the first of the month, was in Roman times as it is now, the date on which bills are due. by Borgna Brunner Source of:http://www.infoplease.com/spot/ides1.html